Partition.jpg"I have traveled across the length and breadth of India and I have not seen one person who is a beggar, who is a thief. Such wealth I have seen in this country, such high moral values, people of such caliber, that I do not think we would ever conquer this country, unless we break the very backbone of this nation, which is her spiritual and cultural heritage, and, therefore, I propose that we replace her old and ancient education system, her culture, for if the Indians think that all that is foreign and English is good and greater than their own, they will lose their self-esteem, their native culture and they will become what we want them, a truly dominated nation."

In June 1947, Muslim League and the Congress Party decided to partition India along religious lines. Thus under the provision of the Indian Independence Act, two separate nations, India and Pakistan were born. Nearly 15 million refugees crossed the borders on the two sides with Hindus and Sikhs moving from Pakistan to India and Muslims from India moving to Pakistan.

Bloodshed and riots followed in the provinces of Punjab and Bengal. While India received most of the 562 scattered polities or princely states, Pakistan received the remaining western part and the Muslim dominated eastern region which was known as East Pakistan now Bangladesh.

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